Introduction (430.1 to 430.2)
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Firms are required to comply with the fundamental principles, be independent and apply the conceptual framework set out in Section 120 to identify, evaluate and address threats to independence.

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When litigation with an audit client occurs, or appears likely, self-interest and intimidation threats are created. This section sets out specific application material relevant to applying the conceptual framework in such circumstances.

Application Material

General (430.3 A1 to 430.3 A4)
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430.3 A1

The relationship between client management and audit team members must be characterized by complete candor and full disclosure regarding all aspects of a client's operations. Adversarial positions might result from actual or threatened litigation between an audit client and the firm, a network firm or an audit team member. Such adversarial positions might affect management's willingness to make complete disclosures and create self-interest and intimidation threats.

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430.3 A2

Factors that are relevant in evaluating the level of such threats include:

  • The materiality of the litigation.

  • Whether the litigation relates to a prior audit engagement.

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430.3 A3

If the litigation involves an audit team member, an example of an action that might eliminate such self-interest and intimidation threats is removing that individual from the audit team.

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430.3 A4

An example of an action that might be a safeguard to address such self-interest and intimidation threats is to have an appropriate reviewer review the work performed.